Tuning Fork

Historical Tuning of Keyboard Instruments

Tuning Hammer

Robert Chuckrow, Ph.D. (physics)

The main systems of tuning, their qualities, and why and when they should be used.


Harpsichord built by Robert Chuckrow

A two manual harpsichord constructed by Robert Chuckrow.

Why not use equal temperament for all music?

Summary of Equal-Temperament, Meantone, and Well-Temperament systems.

Graphical comparison of frequencies in different tunings/temperaments.

Aron-Neidhardt 1/4 syntonic comma Well Temperament: Download a simple scheme for tuning it.

Thomas Young 1/6 ditonic comma Well Temperament 2: Download a simple scheme for tuning it.

Meantone Temperament: Download a simple scheme for tuning it.

Beats: Understand and hear them.

Harmonics of a vibrating string and their frequency relationships, with audio illustrations.

Understand why tempered intervals beat, with audio illustrations.

Decibels: An intuitive explanation.

Information about Robert Chuckrow’s book on historical tuning (enables even those with very little knowledge of music theory or mathematics to achieve a historical and theoretical understanding of tuning and the ability to tune in meantone and well temperament).

The distinction between a tuning and a temperament.

Links to other web sites on historical tuning.

Information on recordings of music in historical temperaments.

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Visit Robert Chuckrow’s web site on T’ai Chi and other health-related subjects.

email Robert Chuckrow

• Phone Robert Chuckrow: 914-762-2810

This website was updated on November 4, 2013.